SOLIDAGO – GOLDENROD
Botanical Name: Solidago virgaurea
Seed count: 8.000/gram
Optimum germination and growth temperature: 42.8 a 46.4 °F / 6 a 8 °C
Season: Summer – Fall
Cycle: 70 days the first sowing, 110 to 115 days the cycle lasts for the rest of the year.
Stem Length: 70 a 75 cm (27.5 – 29.5″inches).
Spray Length: 30 – 35cm (11.8 – 13.8″inches).
SOLIDAGO (GOLDENROD), FEATURES AND GROWING
We will tell you about the features and growing of the Solidago or also called Goldenrod, because of its rigid stem crowned by multiple yellow flowers arranged in clusters, it is a beautiful ornamental and medicinal plant included within the group of flower accessories, considered by many professionals of the floral composition as “the golden axis of the bouquet”, for this reason it is widely marketed as “cut flower” and used in the elaboration of bouquets together with other flowers and foliage.
This little plant has many stories around it, such as that its name derives from the Latin Solidum – ago = “I make strong” which refers to the restorative properties, but others assure that the name derives from the Latin term solid, which means “it serves to all or cure “, which is a reference to the medicinal qualities of these plants, being used for the preparation of aromatic wines with digestive, astringent and diuretic action, its leaves have also been used to heal scars and sores, however, we will talk more before this topic because its properties are almost infinite.
It can be found in prairies, savannas and grasslands, on highway ditches and vacant lots, in places like North America, Mexico, South America, and Eurasia where it comes from. This genus of flower includes between 100 and 120 perennial herbaceous species of the Aster family, Asteraceae, sharing with them many characteristics in the form of cultivation.
As part of the characteristics, we could say that the many species of Solidago can be difficult to distinguish, due to their similar bright golden yellow flower heads that bloom in late summer. However, plants of this genus can be easily recognized by their golden inflorescences, with hundreds of small heads, some of them spike-like and others with auxiliary racemes. They have slender stems, normally without pubosity, although S. canadensis has hairiness in the upper part of the stem, reaching 60 to 150 cm in height or more. Its alternate linear to lanceolate leaves and slightly to sharply serrated margins.
SOME CARE OF SOLIDAGO
Also, within its features, we can say that Solidago is a plant that adapts well to temperatures, being able to withstand frosts of up to minus 4 ° C without damage to the vegetation, but its optimum temperature is between 6 to 8 ° C. If temperatures are very low, its development process is affected, delaying the harvest time. For this reason it is advisable to maintain a backup heating system for the winter seasons.
It is considered a short-day plant, this means that flowering is affected by the duration of the day, in this way, it will flower naturally when the duration is 13 to 14 hours.
As used to form flower beds in gardens or terraces. It is convenient to protect it from the direct rays of the sun; in case of not being able to do it it is better to put them in the shade. Solidago lives well in any soil that retains moisture, but does not puddle, so it must have good drainage.
Although it is tolerant to moderate drought and hot environments, it is better not to neglect the watering, especially in summer, which must be moderate throughout the year, three (maximum four) waterings per week in summer and one every 4 days the rest of the year.
Its fertilization can be the usual one for the maintenance of the garden, trying not to be disproportionate in favor of nitrogen to prevent it from growing excessively and its flowering being affected. A 1-1-2 balance is highly recommended. If it has good nutrients, it will obviously grow more robust and vigorous. In pot you can use universal growing medium for plants alone or mixed with 30% perlite, previously washed river sand or similar.
The best time to plant it in the garden is in spring, when the risk of frost has passed. In the case of having it in a pot, it will have to be transplanted every 2 years.
As for pests, the red spider mite in summer, favored by high temperatures and relative humidity, and aphids ein times of pleasant temperatures, can be the main problems that can arise. Treatments with acaricides and systemic insecticides respectively, easily control them.
GROWING PHASES OF SOLIDAGO
Excerpted from INTRODUCCIÓN AL CULTIVO DE SOLIDAGO by Miguel Romero and Francisco García. CARM, 2001.
In its natural cycle, the plant sprouts abundantly from its tuberified roots and develops vegetatively during spring to flower in late summer. This cycle is the one that is used for its commercial cultivation, pruning the plants after the collection of the flowering stems. In this way, the following Cultivation Phases are differentiated:
It is produced after planting or pruning and is controlled by the photoperiod, artificially lengthening the duration of the day to avoid flower induction and achieve a stem height, including the flower spike, which must exceed 75 cm. for the extra category. Plant about to be pinched.
Sprouted plantation, after pinching. Planting in the flower induction phase. Three weeks after planting, and with a plant height not less than 15 cm, the clamping operation is carried out. It is carried out almost at ground level and the resulting sprouts, numerous and vigorous, will give rise to the final productive plant.
It is caused by cutting off artificial lighting, although it also occurs naturally when the height of the stems exceeds 60-70 cm, regardless of the length of the day. This fact differentiates, among others, the cultivation of Solidago and Aster, since Solidago does not need darkening screens for flower induction in summer (period of long days).
When the plant develops the inflorescence it reaches its final height. Vegetative stems do not appear in this period, but small flower buds do appear that will soon give the plantation a yellow color when they open.
The optimal cutting point and moment appears when the plant has 30 to 40% open flowers, showing fully colored and formed petals and stamens. At this time, irrigation and fertilization should be reduced to avoid the appearance of vegetative sprouts and also avoid risks of root rot. The duration of cultivation from planting to the start of harvest is about 70 days for summer plantations, including a staggered cutting period of approximately two weeks. The rest of the year the growing cycle increases to 110 to 115 days, the duration of the harvest being the same.
Prune and clean
It is carried out when the commercial harvesting ends, and it is carried out at ground level, eliminating all the vegetation of the plant. This achieves a uniform subsequent sprouting. According to these harvesting and pruning guidelines, the plant can produce four cuts per year, taking into account that, from June to September, consumption drops significantly and consequently its profitability.
We already mentioned the origin of these plants, but thanks to globalization, some of these American species were introduced in Europe, where they became pests classified as invasive plants. There are some species of Solidago that are causing significant damage where they were introduced. For example, S. canadensis is responsible for driving 30 native Shanghai species to extinction; on the other hand, S. gigantea is considered invasive in Europe, including Spain.
On this plant there is a lot of cloth to cut, such as its medicinal virtues, but for now, we will end by telling you that the goldenrods are considered in some places, a sign of good luck or good fortune because of their striking and striking yellow color.